Drugs before sex more common in UK than in Europe or US – study – The Guardian

UK citizens are more likely than Europeans or those living in the US to have taken drugs such as MDMA and cocaine before sex during the last year, according to a new study. Researchers used data from the Global Drug Survey of roughly 22,000 people to find that 64% (4,719) of people surveyed from the UK had had sex having drunk alcohol, compared with 60% (1,296) from Europe and 55% (2064) from the US. Of those who took part in the study, the number who combined sex and cocaine was 13% from the UK (936) compared to 8% from Europe. Similarly, a higher number said they had had sex after MDMA, with 20% of those who participated in the survey from the UK saying they had done so against 15% from the US and Europe. The study’s lead author, Dr Will Lawn, noted that because the study was self-selecting, the proportion in the overall population was likely to be lower. The drugs most commonly used during sex across all countries were alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine, while GHB – which has been linked to chemsex parties, where participants take drugs with the specific aim of having sex afterwards – and MDMA were viewed as having the most significant effect on sexual experience. The findings were put together by academics at the University College London and the Global Drug Survey team and published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine. They drew from a survey where people responded to online questions about which drugs they used when having sex, as well as how drugs affected their sexual experience. “To my knowledge no one has ever investigated country-related difference in how drugs are combined with sex, and this shows the UK may well be at greater risk of chemsex-related harm than other countries, something our country has to be mindful of,” said Dr Lawn. The British Medical Journal has called chemsex a “public health timebomb” because of the associated prevalence of risky sex. Lawn also noted that some drugs would be more popular in certain countries, leading to differences. “For a drug like mephedrone, there was a strong difference between the UK and the Eurozone because [the drug] was particularly popular in the UK but not so much other parts of the world,” he said. He said cannabis was more commonly used in the US in general and this correlated with a higher number of people using it during sex. Cannabis was the only drug in which the UK did not top the US and other countries, with 49% of people from the states combining it with sex compared with 36% in the UK. Lawn said that “differences between groups did emerge” in the study. Men who identified as homosexual were roughly 1.6 times more likely than heterosexual men to take drugs with the intention of enhancing their sexual experiences. They confirmed that GHB/GBL, mephedrone and methamphetamine are more commonly combined with sex by homosexual men than heterosexual men. Lawn said: “In summary, the overall message is that men and women of homosexual, heterosexual and bisexual orientation all use drugs with sex. We should not isolate that behaviour as something only men who have sex with men do, which is the stereotypical chemsex image. However, harm reduction messages about certain drugs should still be targeted at specific drugs to specific groups, given that the combination of sex with GHB/GBL, mephedrone and methamphetamine is more popular among gay men.” Professor Adam Winstock, the founder and director of the Global Drug Survey and a senior author, said: “Our study is by far the largest to date to investigate the relationships between sex and drugs. Previous studies have rarely compared men and women, and people of different sexual orientations. “Furthermore, by appreciating how different drugs affect sex we can tailor our harm reduction messages. These pragmatic messages can save lives.”

Colon and rectal cancer can amble disregarded in younger adults, gaze reveals – CNN

(CNN)Kim Newcomer became once a licensed about colon cancer; her father became once identified with the disease at age 46, she acknowledged. So after strolling again from a day out to the Dominican Republic in 2008, when she complained of constipation to her valuable care physician, she became once stunned that her physician despatched her home with laxatives in notify of attempting out her for the cancer.

“I spent the following few months accurate going to the physician, attempting to secure a diagnosis. In the first four months, I potentially seen six assorted doctors,” Newcomer acknowledged. “They couldn’t obtain anything else inappropriate with me even supposing I wired that I had a family historical previous of colorectal cancer. They idea I became once accurate too young for it.”
In the months following, Newcomer acknowledged, she developed a continual cough and underwent a chest x-ray. The x-ray published lesions in her lungs and one breast.
As soon as the tumors in her breast and lungs were biopsied and analyzed, doctors confirmed what Newcomer had suspected all alongside.
“Eleven months after I had first complained of symptoms, I became once identified with stage-4 colorectal cancer,” Newcomer acknowledged. She became once 35 at the time.
Newcomer’s preliminary misdiagnosis demonstrates a rising voice among younger colorectal cancer patients, in step with look at to be presented at the American Affiliation for Cancer Study’s annual assembly in Atlanta on Tuesday.

‘It be an lost sight of population because they’re younger’

The look at surveyed 1,195 colorectal cancer patients and survivors ages 20 to 49, largely from the United States. Newcomer became once one of them.
The look at came upon that most of gaze respondents, 57%, were identified between the ages of 40 and 49; a Third were identified between the ages of 30 and 39; about 10% were identified sooner than age 30.
Even supposing most colorectal cancer patients older than 50 are identified within the early phases of disease, the contemporary look at published that most of the younger patients and survivors within the gaze, 71%, acknowledged they were identified at the evolved phases of three and 4.
That finding suggests that and not utilizing a screening and consciousness of the opportunity of colorectal cancer at these ages, indicators of their cancer could also contain long gone disregarded in its early phases.
The gaze responses moreover confirmed that most of the patients and survivors, 63%, waited three to one year sooner than visiting their doctors for symptoms, because they did no longer acknowledge their symptoms as cancer-associated.
Additionally, 67% of the respondents acknowledged they seen a minimum of two physicians sooner than being identified precisely with colorectal cancer, which entails every colon and rectal cancers.
“It be an lost sight of population because they’re younger and on the total are usually wholesome,” acknowledged Dr. Ronit Yarden, lead author of the look at and director of clinical affairs at the nonprofit Colorectal Cancer Alliance, a patient advocacy group in Washington.
“It be most essential that of us know the symptoms,” she acknowledged.
Limitations of the look at incorporated that the gaze responses were self-reported, and extra look at is wanted to search out out whether identical findings would emerge among a greater sample of patients in contrast with older patients.
“It be mute a rare thing for younger folks to secure colon cancer,” acknowledged Dr. Paul Oberstein, a clinical oncologist and director of the Gastrointestinal Scientific Oncology Program at NYU Langone’s Perlmutter Cancer Middle in Fresh York, who became once no longer fascinated concerning the contemporary look at.
“Nonetheless it indubitably does happen, and I mediate for folks who contain indicators of it — constipation, rectal bleeding or pains going to the loo — they need to secure evaluated for cancer, among other conditions,” he acknowledged.

Colorectal cancer symptoms and screening pointers

Signs of colorectal cancer encompass diarrhea or constipation; feeling that your bowel does no longer empty fully; blood to your stool; frequent gasoline agonize or cramps; weight reduction and not utilizing a identified reason; fatigue, and nausea or vomiting.
The American Cancer Society as a lot as this level its colorectal cancer screening pointers closing year to suggest that adults at realistic risk secure screened starting at age forty five in notify of fifty, as previously told. Screening choices can range from getting a extremely easy fecal take a look at every year to undergoing colonoscopy every 10 years.
These at elevated risk encompass African American citizens, Alaska Natives and folks with a family historical previous or a private historical previous of colon or rectal polyps; such risk components can also require screening at an earlier age.
“What’s in actuality main is that of us who contain a family historical previous of colon cancer — being any first-stage relative who had colon cancer at any age — that particular person need to secure screened at age 40 or 10 years sooner than the family member’s diagnosis,” acknowledged Oberstein, who became once no longer fascinated concerning the pointers.
“So in case your father had it at forty five, secure screened at 35,” she acknowledged.
The as a lot as this level pointers, published in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, acknowledged that realistic-risk adults in factual well being with a life expectancy of greater than 10 years need to continue colorectal cancer screening by the age of 75.
Colorectal cancer is the third most overall reason within the wait on of cancer-associated deaths globally, in step with the World Health Organization.
In the United States, colorectal cancer is the 2nd-main reason within the wait on of cancer-associated deaths among cancers which contain an tag on every men and women folks, in step with the Centers for Disease Administration and Prevention.
Old look at contain suggested that rates of colorectal cancer deaths are rock climbing among adults younger than 55 within the United States.

An ‘uptick’ of colon cancer in younger adults

After declining total from 1970 to 2004, colon and rectal cancer mortality rates among 20- to 54-year-olds within the United States elevated by 1% every year from 2004 to 2014, in step with a 2017 gaze within the clinical journal JAMA.
As for Newcomer, by 2012, she now no longer confirmed proof of disease and has been a cancer survivor ever since, but she acknowledged that her myth can also wait on lift consciousness about how colorectal cancer without concerns can amble lost sight of in younger adults.
“I mute contain prolonged-length of time effects. So I in actuality contain a laborious time walking; I in actuality contain a laborious time with neuropathy with my hands and feet. I in actuality contain zero sexual characteristic for this reason of radiation and chemotherapy treatments,” acknowledged Newcomer, now forty five and living in Arizona, who runs the By no components Too Young outreach program at the Colorectal Cancer Alliance.
“It be so main to secure this recordsdata out to other patients and survivors,” she acknowledged. “The higher voice is, how carry out we educate kids and clinical mavens on the amplify of young-onset colorectal cancer?”
Whereas colorectal cancer stays exceptional extra overall after age 50, “we are seeing an uptick of younger folks being identified with colon cancer,” acknowledged Dr. Nilofer Azad, partner professor of oncology at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Middle in Baltimore and a member of the Stand Up to Cancer Colorectal Cancer Dream Team, who became once no longer fascinated concerning the contemporary look at.
Specifically, colon cancer incidence rates elevated by 1% to 2.4% every year since the mid-Eighties in adults 20 to 39 and by 0.5% to 1.3% since the mid-Nineties in adults 40 to 54, in step with a gaze published within the Journal of the National Cancer Institute in 2017.
Though these incidence rates in younger adults mute live little, the gaze came upon that for this reason, any individual born circa 1990 would now contain double the probability of colon cancer and quadruple the probability of rectal cancer at the identical age than within the event that they been born circa 1950.

‘It be continually factual to be an recommend for yourself’

Anecdotally, Azad acknowledged, she has seen extra colorectal cancer patients below the age of fifty — including in their 20s and 30s — all around the previous couple of years, whereas that became once very atypical sooner than.
“Nonetheless that’s no longer true recordsdata. It be one physician’s ride, and I work in a greater heart where folks reach to look out 2nd and third opinions,” Azad acknowledged.
On the total, when colorectal cancer symptoms emerge in younger adults, a physician can also refer that patient to other doctors to secure assorted opinions.
“Whereas you happen to are feeling shy about something and your physician is no longer shy but your symptoms continue, or no longer it’s continually realistic to secure a 2nd idea. … It be continually factual to be an recommend for yourself,” Azad acknowledged.
“Whereas you happen to could also contain symptoms that are in line with a diagnosis of colorectal cancer, you desires to be evaluated the identical components an particular particular person would be evaluated within the event that they were 30 years older,” she acknowledged. “The default desires to be to rule out severe conditions, including cancer, in notify of making assumptions that something is no longer cancer or benign.”

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Or now not it’s Legitimate: We Now Win Fair Affirmation of Methane on Mars – ScienceAlert

Or now not it’s Legitimate: We Now Win Fair Affirmation of Methane on Mars – ScienceAlert


1 APR 2019

There became a huge lope when reports emerged that the Curiosity rover had detected methane on Mars. But there became a boom: it may perhaps perhaps most likely most likely perhaps perhaps perhaps now not be dominated out that its sensors had been wiggy, or something became misinterpreted.

Now it appears we can keep that discipline to rest – on fable of an unbiased source has also detected methane on Mars.

On 16 June 2013, a day sooner than Curiosity detected methane within the identical space, the European Space Agency’s Mars Specific mission, in orbit round the Crimson Planet, caught a whiff of the stuff near the Gale Crater – the distance explored by Curiosity.

A host of instruments own detected methane on Mars. But this is the main time two separate items of apparatus own detected methane (CH4) within the identical space on the identical time.

“Despite varied detections reported by separate groups and diversified experiments, and even supposing plausible mechanisms had been proposed to thunder the seen abundance, variability and lifetime of methane within the most contemporary Martian ambiance, the methane debate composed splits the Mars community,” planetary scientist Marco Giuranna of the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica told ScienceAlert.

“Earlier than our glimpse, methane detections on Mars weren’t confirmed by unbiased observations. This most contemporary discovering constitutes the main unbiased confirmation of a methane detection.”

It makes outdated detections more disturbing to thunder away as a glitch within the guidelines, or depressed spectral decision, or even – as has been argued – methane that became inside of Curiosity first of all.

Nope. That methane is surely Martian.

And it may perhaps perhaps most likely most likely perhaps perhaps perhaps also be a in actuality huge deal. Right here on Earth, now we own got an very wonderful quantity of the stuff – about 1,800 functions per billion by quantity (ppbv) within the ambiance as of 2011, of which 90 to 95 p.c is generated by residing or deceased creatures.

There are geological processes that will perhaps perhaps generate methane abiotically. On gas and ice giants equivalent to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, a selection of methane is produced by technique of chemical processes.

Pluto has methane ice. Saturn’s moon Titan has lakes of liquid methane. The stuff is rarely in actuality exactly uncommon within the Solar Machine.

On Mars, too, the enviornment focus is minuscule when in contrast to Earth’s – it appears in bursts, with a world moderate of felony 10 ppbv. But figuring out the place the Martian methane came from, and the arrangement, will thunder us something new and thrilling about the Crimson Planet – even though that source is now not microbes.

The Mars Specific orbiter did in actuality detect methane once sooner than, in 2004, the expend of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) instrument. Or now not it’s this instrument that made the 2013 detection, too, nonetheless with new commentary and diagnosis techniques that amplify self belief within the outcomes.

“Due to the its used absorption, somewhat low abundance, and excessive spatial and temporal variability, quantitative analyses of CH4with PFS require special attention to the means the spectra are composed, handled, and analysed,” Giuranna acknowledged.

She added that the group developed a brand new means to deciding on and retrieving files from the PFS, analysing it with techniques that purple meat up accuracy and “decrease statistical uncertainties”.

(Giuranna et al., Nature Geoscience, 2019)

This required lots of work from the flooring up – which is why the pause result’s only being released now, nearly six years after the detection. But that painstaking work has paid off, on fable of it’s narrowed the place on Mars we can scrutinize methane being released.

In preserving with the researchers, transient events in a fault space near the Gale Crater are the likely space of methane release. That will perhaps perhaps perhaps also thunder why it disappears and reappears so peculiarly.

“The fretted terrain of Aeolis Mensae is in contact with the distance of Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) and in shut proximity to areas the place the MFF has been proposed to own shallow bulk ice,” Giuranna told ScienceAlert.

“Since permafrost is believed to be one of many exact seals for methane, it’s a ways imaginable that bulk ice within the MFF may perhaps perhaps perhaps perhaps also entice and seal subsurface methane.

“That methane may perhaps perhaps perhaps perhaps also be released episodically alongside faults that destroy thru the permafrost on account of partial melting of ice, gas pressure execute-up prompted by gas accumulation all the arrangement thru migration, or stresses on account of planetary adjustments or native meteorite influence.”

We received’t know till we can dawdle search for – nonetheless now we know that additional investigation would fully be helpful.

In the period in-between, the stare for methane is ongoing. The PFS instrument continues to observe the Martian ambiance, and its total files backlog will be reanalysed the expend of the group’s new techniques.

The compare has been revealed inNature Geoscience.

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Stars align as Beresheet spacecraft prepares for lunar need – The Times of Israel

Stars align as Beresheet spacecraft prepares for lunar need – The Times of Israel

The Beresheet spacecraft has efficiently done last maneuvers in make clear to self-discipline itself into a self-discipline the attach it’ll soar into lunar orbit on Thursday, the SpaceIL and Israel Aerospace Industries group equipped.

The engineers talked about they activated the spacecraft’s engines for 72 seconds early Monday morning, in what is prone to be one of many closing maneuvers before the complicated lunar need. On Thursday, the spacecraft will attain the moon’s orbit, and will need to suggested the onboard engines at precisely the staunch moment in make clear to enter into an elliptical orbit across the moon.

The four-legged Beresheet, in regards to the dimensions of a exiguous car, is on its closing and largest elliptical loop spherical Earth before it maneuvers into the moon’s orbit on April 4.

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Touchdown is planned for April 11 at the Sea of Serenity.

The pass requires last precision: if the engines are now now not activated for ample time, the craft will fail to be captured by the moon’s former gravitational pull. If the engines are activated for too long, it will in all probability perhaps most certainly overshoot the moon fully. There is a actually exiguous window of replace the attach the moon’s orbit crosses the elliptical orbit of the spacecraft.

Having overcome a pair of exiguous system faults with an surprising system reset and some problems with the smartly-known person monitoring navigation system, the spacecraft is on agenda to develop the landing.

A pc simulation reveals the route that the Beresheet spacecraft will make a choice the moon, with a series of elevated ellipses across the Earth unless it reaches an orbit across the moon. (courtesy SpaceIL)

Beresheet, that stretch “Genesis” in Hebrew, lifted off on February 22 from Cape Canaveral in Florida atop a Falcon 9 rocket from the interior most US-basically basically based SpaceX company of entrepreneur Elon Musk.

Final month, Beresheet despatched aid a characterize occupied with its “selfie digital camera,” throughout which the Israeli flag can even be seen 37,600 kilometers (23,000 miles) above Earth.

The NIS 370 million ($100 million) Beresheet spacecraft is a joint enterprise between interior most companies SpaceIL and Israel Aerospace Industries, funded nearly fully by interior most donations from smartly-known Jewish philanthropists. The mission launched as Israel’s entry into the Google LunarX issue for nongovernmental groups to land a spacecraft on the moon. Google ended the contest in 2018 without a winners, however the Israeli group determined to continue its efforts privately.

With Beresheet, Israel hopes to turn out to be the fourth nation within the sphere to land a spacecraft on the moon, following the US, Russia, and China.

Beresheet on screen before its originate, December 17, 2018. (Ariel Schalit/AP)

If successful, Beresheet will develop history twice: because the main interior most-sector landing on the Moon, and the main craft from Israel to realize the orb.

If Beresheet efficiently lands on April 11, the spacecraft is anticipated to construct two or three days of experiments collecting knowledge in regards to the moon’s magnetic fields before shutting down. There, all 160 kilograms (350 pounds) of the lunar lander will pause, most certainly for eternity, on the moon’s floor, joining approximately 181,000 kilograms (400,000 pounds at Earth weight) of manmade debris strewn across the moon’s floor.

The distance between Earth and the moon is approximately 384,000 kilometers (240,000 miles). Beresheet’s elliptical route, which saves on gas wants by harnessing the gravitational pull of the Earth, will cover about 6.5 million kilometers (4 million miles). The spacecraft is touring at a tempo of about 10 km/sec (36,000 km/h) on its formula to the moon, or 13 times quicker than the utmost tempo of an F15 fighter jet.

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